Strategy Versus Tactics: OE is not Strategy!
The Trojan Horse was a tactic and not a strategy.
Over last few decades, too much focus on OE and not enough on competitive positioning.
OE and tactics are easy to copy and thus do not lead to sustainable competitive advantage. Especially in Red Oceans (e.g. eCommerce, IT services)
Lead to absolute gains but no relative advantage.
OE though a necessary condition is not sufficient for superior performance as it leads to competitive convergence and mutually destructive competition.